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英语语法专题86:虚拟语气在条件句中的用法

  英语语法专题86:虚拟语气在条件句中的用法,易看懂的考试难点!
英语学习
  本次英语语法专题我们学习“虚拟语气在条件句中的用法”,具体内容如下:
  条件句分为真实条件句和虚拟条件句。真实条件句所表示的假设是有可能实现的,而虚拟条件句所表示的假设不可能或不大可能发生。
  一、真实条件句
  这种条件句实现的可能性非常大,在条件句中常用现在的某种时态表示将来的时态。这些条件句常用if,unless,once,as/so long as,on condition that等引导。
  例句:IfI have seen further than most men,it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.
  如果我比大多数人看得远一些,那是我站在巨人肩膀上的缘故。
  例句:The eye is blind ifthe mind is absent.
  心不在焉,就会视而不见。
  例句:Man cannot find new oceans unlesshe has courage to lose sight of the shore.
  人只有鼓起勇气,告别海岸,才能发现新的大洋。


  例句:As long asyou love it,you can keep it to your self.
  只要你喜欢,你就可以留给自己。
  二、虚拟条件句
  虚拟条件句往往指不能实现的或假想的情况,可以对过去、现在或将来进行假想,分别用不同的动词形式表示,主句也相应地用不同形式表示。
  (一)对现在情况的虚拟
  对现在情况的虚拟,条件句的谓语动词用过去式,主句谓语动词用“would/should/might/could+动词原形”形式,表示对现在不可能实现的情况的假想。
  例句:This wouldbe neither here nor there if it weren't for the observation that having an older mother seems to be independent risk factor for obesity.
  如果不是留意到大龄母亲似乎是导致肥胖症的一个独立的风险因素的话,这一点倒也无关紧要。
  例句:If wereyou,I would choose to work in a small town.
  如果我是你,我会选择在小城镇工作。(事实显然是你不是我)
  例句:If it weren'tfor the rocks in its bed,the stream would have no song.
  溪床如果没有石块,溪流就不会潺潺歌唱。(事实是溪床中有石块)
  例句:If I hada map now,we could easily get out of the forest.
  如果现在有地图,我们能很容易地走出森林。(事实是现在没有地图)


  注意!在条件从句中,如果谓语动词是be的形式,不管主语是单数还是复数,书面中用were,而口语如果是单数,也可以用was,不过在if I were...中一般用were。
  例句:If the world wereperfect,how could we enjoy the pleasure and comfort of being successful ?
  世界若完美,我们如何能享受创造成功的快感?
  例句:If a beard werea sign of smartness,the goat would be a Socrates.
  如果胡子就是知识的象征,那么山羊也会成为苏格拉底。
  例句:If there wereno music,the world would be very dull.
  如果没有音乐,世界将会非常单调。
  (二)对过去情况的虚拟
  对过去情况虚拟的条件从句中谓语动词用过去完成式,主句中“would/should/might/could+have+动词的过去分词”形式。
  例句:Mary couldn't have receivedmy letter,or/otherwise she would have replied/made a reply to me last week.
  玛丽肯定没有收到我的信,否则她上周就该回信了。
  例句:If it had not beenfor your help yesterday,I couldn't have caught the bus.
  如果昨天没有你的帮忙,我不会赶上公交车。(事实是你昨天已经帮助了我,所以我赶上了火车。)
  例句:I should (would) never have doneit if I hadn't been so hard up.
  如果不是手头如此拮据,我是不会那样做得。
  例句:Hadit not been for their support,we couldn't have won the election.
  要不是他们的支持,我们不可能赢得选举。
  (三)对将来情况的虚拟
  在表示与将来事实相反的条件从句中,谓语动词可用should do,were to do或动词的过去式三种形式表示,但意义略有不同。Should表示的可能性最大,动词过去式的可能性次之,were to do的可能性最小。
  例句:If things wereto be twice,all would be wise.
  假如凡事都可以重新做一次,人人皆可成为智者。(事实是并不是所有的事都可以重新做一次。)
  例句:If we should cometomorrow,we would meet the general manager.
  如果我们明天能来,就能见到总经理。(事实是明天很可能不来)
  (四)错综时间条件句
  一些条件句的主句谓语和从句谓语表示的动作在时间上并不一致,这类句子称为错综时间条件句。
  例句:If you had takenmy advice then,you wouldn't be in trouble now.
  如果当时听我劝,你现在就不会有麻烦了。(if条件句是对过去的虚拟,故用过去完成时,而主句是对现在的虚拟,故用“would+动词原形”形式。)
  例句:“I really feel like I failed them,”he says.“If I wasa better teacher maybe I could have reached them.”
  “我确实感到是我耽误了他们,”他说。“如果我是个更优秀的老师,也许我就能打动他们了。”(本句中,从句部分是对现在的虚拟,而主句部分则是对过去的虚拟。)
  例句:If it had rainedlast night,it might be very cold today.
  如果昨晚下雨的话,今天就会很冷了。(if条件句是对过去的虚拟语气,故用过去完成时,而主句是对现在的虚拟,故用“might+动词原形”形式。)
  (五)含蓄条件句
  一些句子虽不含条件从句,但意思和条件句相差不多,这种句子称为“含蓄条件句”,这种句子有时候会用虚拟语气。
  例句:But for mobile phones,our communication would not have beenso efficient and convenient.
  如果不是有了移动电话,我们的通信就不可能如此迅速和方便。
  例句:By that logic,2006 should have beena breakthrough year for rational behavior.
  依此逻辑,2006年本应该是人类能够采取合理行为的突破年。
  例句:Without electricity,the world would bedark.(=If there were no electricity,the world would be dark.)
  如果没有电,世界将会一片黑暗。
  例句:I might have givenyou more help,but I was too busy.
  我本应能多帮你一些的,但当时太忙了。
  注意!主句中would,should,could,might的选择
  ①would/should表示“会”,would用于各人称,should主要用于第一人称。Could表示“能够”,might表示“有可能”。
  例句:If you tried again,you wouldsucceed.
  如果你再试一次,你会成功的。
  例句:If you tried again,you couldsucceed.
  如果你再试一次,你就能成功的。
  例句:If you tried again,you mightsucceed.
  如果你再试一次,你或许会成功的。
  ②在虚拟条件句中如果有were,had,should,可以将if去掉,然后把were,had,should提到主语前面。
  例句:If time were to goback,I would work double hard.
  →Weretime to go back,I would work double hard.
  如果时光能倒流,我会加倍努力。
  例句:If I had workedhard,I would have surely succeeded.
  →HadI worked hard,I would have surely succeeded.
  如果我当时努力学习的话,我肯定会成功的。
  例句:If it shouldbe fine tomorrow,we would go for an outing.
  →Shouldit be fine tomorrow,we would go for an outing.
  假如明天天气好的话,我们就去郊游。
  以上就是本次专题“虚拟语气在条件句中的用法”,下面是复盘导图。咱们一定要结合例句学习语法,这样更容易理解和实操英语!


  后面有更多英语专题内容分享给大家,感兴趣的朋友可以点击“关注”。
  欢迎各位留言讨论,或者收藏,或者转发给身边的亲朋好友,大家一起学习、共同进步。
  学好英语并不难,听说读写重复练!坚持就会有提高,加油!

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